Pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis: evaluation of a two-stage surgical strategy (debridement, negative pressure therapy and flap coverage) with prolonged antimicrobial therapy
A two-stage surgical strategy (debridement-negative pressure therapy (NPT) and flap coverage) with prolonged antimicrobial therapy is usually proposed in pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis but has not been widely evaluated.
Adult patients with pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis treated by a two-stage surgical strategy were included in a retrospective cohort study. Determinants of superinfection (i.e., additional microbiologicalfindings at reconstruction) and treatment failure were assessed using binary logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier curve analysis.
Sixty-four pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis in 61 patients (age, 47 (IQR, 36–63)) were included. Osteomyelitis was mostly polymicrobial (73%), with a predominance of S. aureus (47%), Enterobacteriaceae spp. (44%) and anaerobes (44%). Flap coverage was performed after 7 (IQR, 5–10) weeks of NPT, with 43 (68%) positive bone samples among which 39 (91%) were superinfections, associated with a high ASA score (OR, 5.8; p = 0.022). An increased prevalence of coagulase negative staphylococci (p = 0.017) and Candida spp. (p = 0.003) was observed at time of flap coverage. An ESBL Enterobacteriaceae spp. was found in 5 (12%) patients, associated with fluoroquinolone consumption (OR, 32.4; p = 0.005). Treatment duration was as 20 (IQR, 14–27) weeks, including 11 (IQR, 8–15) after reconstruction. After a follow-up of 54 (IQR, 27–102) weeks, 15 (23%) failures were observed, associated with previous pressure ulcer (OR, 5.7; p = 0.025) and Actinomyces spp. infection (OR, 9.5; p = 0.027).
Pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis is a difficult-to-treat clinical condition, generating an important consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The lack of correlation between outcome and the debridementto-reconstruction interval argue for a short sequence to limit the total duration of treatment.